Saturday, November 6, 2010

ပိုက္ျပင္ပိုက္ဆက္လက္စဲြ (၃၀) (Piping Design - 2)

၁၃၊ ၂။ ASME Codes and Standards


အေမရိကန္ စက္မႈအင္ဂ်င္နီယာမ်ားအသင္း American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) ကို အင္ဂ်င္နီယာဘာသာရပ္ဆုိင္ရာ စည္းမ်ဥ္းစည္းကမ္းမ်ား၊ စံႏံႈးမ်ား ခ်မွတ္ရန္၊ စက္မႈ အင္ဂ်င္နီယာမ်ားအၾကား ကြ်မ္းက်င္မႈႏွင့္ အသိပညာမ်ား ျဖန္႔ေ၀ေပးရန္ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္ျဖင့္ ၁၈၈၀ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ စတင္ဖဲြ႔စည္းခဲ့ပါသည္။

ASME Codes and Standards မ်ားစြာရိွသည့္အနက္ ဤေနရာတြင္ ပိုက္ႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္ေသာ Code ႏွင့္ Standard မ်ားကိုသာ ေဖာ္ျပပါမည္။

တစ္ကမၻာလံုးက စံထားသံုးစဲြေနရေသာ code မွာ ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ၎တြင္ အခန္း ၁၁ ခန္းပါ၏။

၁၃၊ ၂၊ ၁။ ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

အခန္း - ၁ ။ Power Boilers
အခန္း - ၂ ။ Material Specifications
အခန္း - ၃ ။ Rules for Construction of Nuclear Power Plant Components
အခန္း - ၄ ။ Heating Boilers
အခန္း - ၅ ။ Nondestructive Examination
အခန္း - ၆ ။ Recommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
အခန္း - ၇ ။ Recommended Rules for Care of Power Boilers
အခန္း - ၈ ။ Pressure Vessels
အခန္း - ၉ ။ Welding and Brazing Qualifications
အခန္း - ၁၀ ။ Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
အခန္း - ၁၁ ။ Rules for In-Service Inspection of Nuclear Power Components

ဤအခန္းမ်ားအနက္ ပိုက္ႏွင့္ပတ္သက္ေသာအခန္းမ်ားမွာ အခန္း ၁၊ ၂၊ ၃၊ ၄၊ ၅၊ ၈ ႏွင့္ ၉ တို႔သာ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။

၁၃၊ ၂၊ ၂။ ASME B31

တစ္ကမၻာလံုးက စံထားသံုးစဲြေနရေသာ ေနာက္ code တစ္ခုမွာ ASME B31 ျဖစ္ပါ သည္။ Project B31 ျဖင့္စတင္ခဲ့ကာ ASME B31 – Standard Code for Pressure Piping ကို ၁၉၃၅ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ပံုႏိွပ္ထုတ္ေ၀ခဲ့ပါသည္။ မူလက အေမရိကန္စံႏံႈးမ်ားအတိုင္း ေရးသားခဲ့ျခင္း ျဖစ္၏။ ၁၉၇၈ ဒီဇင္ဘာမွ စတင္ၿပီး American National Standards Committee B31 ကို ASME Code for Pressure Piping B31 Committee အျဖစ္ ASME ၏ ဖဲြ႔စည္းပံု နည္းစနစ္မ်ားအတိုင္း ျပန္လည္ဖဲြ႔စည္းခဲ့သည္။ ထိုအဖဲြ႔ကို ANSI (American National Standards Institute) မွ အသိအမွတ္ျပဳခဲ့၏။

လက္ရိွတြင္ ASME B31 မွ ေအာက္ပါတို႔ကို ပံုႏွိပ္ထုတ္ေ၀ခဲ့ၿပီး ျဖစ္သည္။

ASME B31.1 Power Piping
USAS B31.2 Fuel Gas Piping
ASME B31.3 Process Piping
ASME B31.4 Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid
Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohol
ASME B31.5 Refrigeration Piping
ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission And Distribution Piping System
ASME B31.9 Building Services Piping
ASME B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems

၁၃၊ ၃။ ANSI Codes and Standards

ANSI (American National Standards Institute) ကို ယခင္က American Standards Association (ASA) ဟု လူသိမ်ားခဲ့သည္။ ၁၉၆၇ မွ ၁၉၆၉ ခုႏွစ္မ်ားအတြင္းကမူ United Stated of America Standards Institute (USASI) ဟု နာမည္ေျပာင္းခဲ့သည္။ ANSI က ဖြ႔ံၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈႏွင့္ အမ်ားျပည္သူက လက္ခံသံုးစဲြထားေသာ စံမ်ားကို အတည္ျပဳေပးရန္၊ အျခား ႏိုင္ငံျခားအစိုးရအဖဲြ႔မ်ား၊ အျပည္ျပည္ဆုိင္ရာ စံႏံႈးအဖဲြ႔ (ISO – International Organization for Standardization) ၊ အျခား စံႏႈံးသတ္မွတ္ခ်က္မ်ားကို ျဖန္႔ေ၀ေပးရန္ ေဆာင္ ရြက္ေပးသည္။

ANSI မွ တာ၀န္ယူျဖန္႔ေ၀ေပး၊ အတည္ျပဳေပးေသာ အင္ဂ်င္နီယာဆုိင္ရာ ဒီဇိုင္းႏွင့္ ေဆာက္လုပ္ေရးဆိုင္ရာ လိုအပ္ခ်က္မ်ားမွာ အဓိကအားျဖင့္ ျပည္သူမ်ားအတြက္ လံုၿခံဳစိတ္ခ်ရမႈ (Safety) ကို အေျခခံထားသည္။

ပိုက္ႏွင့္ဆိုင္ရာ ANSI Standards မ်ားမွာ ေအာက္ပါတို႔ျဖစ္သည္။

A13.1-96 Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems
A112.1.2-91 Air Gaps in Plumbing Systems
A112.6.1M-88 Supports for Off-the-Floor Plumbing Fixtures for Public Use
A112.18.1M-96 Plumbing Fixture Fittings
A112.19.IM-94 Enameled Cast Iron Plumbing Fixtures
A112.19.3M-87 Stainless Steel Plumbing Fixtures (designed for residential use)
A112.21.1M-91 Floor Drains
A112.21.2M-83 Roof Drains (revision of ANSI A112.21.2-1971)
A112.36.2M-91 Cleanouts (revision of ANSI A112.36.2-1983)
AG-1-94 Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment
B1.1 Unified Inch Screw Threads
B1.20.1-83 Pipe Threads General Purpose (Inch)
B1.20.3-76 Dryseal Pipe Threads (Inch)
B16.1-89 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
B16.3-92 Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings; Classes 150 and 300
B16.4.92 Cast Iron Threaded Fittings; Classes 125 and 250
B16.5-96 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
B16.9-93 Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt- Welding Fittings
B16.10-92 Face-To-Face and End-To-End Dimensions of Valves
B16.11-96 Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded
B16.12-91 Cast Iron Threaded Drainage Fittings
B16.14-91 Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Locknuts with Pipe Threads
B16.15-85 Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings; Classes 125 and 250
B16.18-84 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings (R1994)
B16.22-95 Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
B16.23-92 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings
B16.24-91 Bronze Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings; Classes 150 and 300
B16.25-97 Butt-Welding Ends
B16.26-88 Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes
B16.28-94 Wrought Steel Butt-Welding Short Radius Elbows and Returns
B16.29-94 Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings
B16.32-92 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Fittings for Solvent Drainage Systems
B16.33-90 Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in Gas Piping Systems up to 125 psig (sizes 1⁄2 through 2)
B16.34-96 Valves—Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End
B16.36-96 Orifice Flanges
B16.38-85 Large Metallic Valves for Gas Distribution (manually operated, NPS 2 1⁄2 to 12, 125 psig maximum) (R1994)
B16.39-86 Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions; Classes 150, 250, and 300
B16.40-85 Manually Operated Thermoplastic Gas Shutoffs and Valves in Gas Distribution Systems (R1994)
B16.41-83 Functional Qualification Requirements for Power-Operated Active Valve Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants (R1989)
B16.42-87 Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings; Classes 150 and 300 (R1997)
B16.44-95 Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in House Piping Systems
B16.45-87 Cast Iron Fittings for Solvent Drainage Systems
B16.47-96 Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 through NPS 60
B18.2.1-96 Square and Hex Bolts and Screws (Inch Series) Including Hex Cap Screws and Lag Screws; Supplement 1318.2.1
B18.2.2-87 Square and Hex Nuts (Inch Series)
B18.2.3.1M-79 Metric Hex Cap Screws (R1995)
B18.2.3.2M-79 Metric Formed Hex Screws (R1995)
B18.2.3.3M-79 Metric Heavy Hex Screws (R1995)
B18.2.3.4M-84 Metric Hex Flange Screws (R1995)
B18.2.3.5M-79 Metric Hex Bolts; Errata-May 1981 (R1995)
B18.2.3.6M-79 Metric Heavy Hex Bolts (R1995)
B18.2.4.1M-79 Metric Hex Nuts, Style 1 (R1995)
B18.2.4.2M-79 Metric Hex Nuts, Style 2 (R1995)
B18.2.4.3M-79 Metric Slotted Hex Nuts (R1995)
B18.2.4.4M-82 Metric Hex Flange Nuts (R1993)
B18.2.4.5M-79 Metric Hex Jam Nuts (R1990)
B18.2.4.6M-79 Metric Heavy Hex Nuts (R1990)
B18.5-90 Round Head Bolts (Inch Series)
B18.5.2.1M-81 Metric Round Head Short Square Neck Bolts (R1995)
B18.5.2.2M-82 Metric Round Head Square Neck Bolts (R1993)
B18.15-85 Forged Eyebolts (R1995)
B18.18.1M-87 Inspection and Quality Assurance for General Purpose Fasteners
B18.18.3M-87 Inspection and Quality Assurance for Special Purpose Fasteners
B18.18.4M-87 Inspection and Quality Assurance for Fasteners for Highly Specialized Engineered Applications (R1993)
B18.21.1-72 Lock Washers (Inch Series)
B18.21.2M-94 Lock Washers (Metric Series)
B18.22M-81 Metric Plain Washers (R1990)
B18.22.1-65 Plain Washers
B32.5-77 Preferred Metric Sizes for Tubular Metal Products Other than Pipe
B32.6M-84 Preferred Metric Equivalents of Inch Sizes for Tubular Products Other than Pipe (revision of ANSI B32.6-1977) (R1994)
B36.10M-96 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe B36.19M-85 Stainless Steel Pipe (revision of ANSI B36.19)
MFC-1M-91 Glossary of Terms Used in the Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes
MFC-6M-87 Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Vortex Flow Meters
MFC-7M-87 Measurement of Gas Flow by Means of Critical Flow Venturi Nozzles (R1992)
N45.2.1-80 Cleaning of Fluid Systems and Associated Components for Nuclear Power Plants
N278.1-75 Self-Operated and Power-Operated Safety-Related Valves Functional Specification Standard, Reactor Plants and Their Maintenance (R 1992)
NQA-1-1997 Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities
TDP-1-85 Recommended Practices for the Prevention of Water Damage to Steam Turbines Used for Electric Power Generation (Fossil)
TDP-2-85 Recommended Practices for the Prevention of Water Damage to Steam Turbines Used for Electric Power Generation
B31 Guide-77 Corrosion Control for ANSI B31.1, Power Piping Systems
B31 Guide-91 Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines (a supplement to ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping)
1001-88 Performance Requirements for Pipe Applied Atmospheric Type Vacuum Breakers
1003-93 Performance Requirements for Water Pressure Reducing Valves
1037-90 Performance Requirements for Pressurized Flushing Devices (Flusho meters) for Plumbing Fixtures
1045-87 Performance Standard and Installation Procedures for Aluminum Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe with End Cap Components
B16.20-93 Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges— Ring Joint, Spiral-Wound and Jacketed
B16.21-92 Non-metallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

၁၃၊ ၄။ ASTM Codes and Standards

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) သည္ ပစၥည္းမ်ား၊ စနစ္မ်ား၊ ထုတ္ကုန္မ်ား၊ ၀န္ေဆာင္မႈမ်ား၏ အရည္အေသြး၊ သြင္ျပင္လကၡဏာ ႏွင့္ လုပ္ေဆာင္ ႏိုင္စြမ္းတို႔ကို စမ္းသပ္ကာ စံႏံႈးမ်ား သတ္မွတ္ေပးသည္။ ၎တို႔၏ ေဆာင္ရြက္ခ်က္မ်ားတြင္ ပစၥည္းမ်ား၏ သြင္ျပင္လကၡဏာမ်ားကို ေဖာ္ထုတ္ျခင္း၊ ေထာက္ခံခ်က္ေပးျခင္း (Determining and verifying characteristics) ဥပမာအားျဖင့္ ပစၥည္းမ်ားတြင္ ေပါင္းစပ္ပါ၀င္ေနေသာ ဓါတု ပစၥည္းပါ၀င္မႈ အခ်ိဳးအဆ (Chemical composition), စန္႔အား (Tensile Strength)၊ ေကြးညြတ္ ျခင္းဆိုင္ရာ အရည္အေသြးမ်ား (Bending properties) ကို စမ္းသပ္ေဖာ္ထုတ္ကာ အတည္ျပဳ ေပးျခင္းတို႔ ပါ၀င္သည္။

ASTM Standards တို႔ကို အတဲြေပါင္း ၆၇ တဲြ (67 volumes) ထုတ္ေ၀ထားသည္။

အတဲြတစ္တဲြစီအား လက္ရိွစာအုပ္ကို ျပန္လည္ျပင္ဆင္ခ်က္မ်ား၊ ျဖည့္စြက္ခ်က္မ်ား၊ ႏႈတ္ပယ္ခ်က္မ်ားအတြက္ ႏွစ္စဥ္ထုတ္ေ၀သည္။ ထို ၆၇ တဲြကို အပိုင္း ၁၆ ပိုင္းပုိင္းကာ ေအာက္ ပါအတိုင္း ေဖာ္ျပထားသည္။ သို႔ေသာ္ ပိုက္ႏွင့္ဆိုင္ေသာအပိုင္းမွာ နည္းလွ၏။ Vol 01.01, Vol 03.03, Vol 08.04 မွ်ေလာက္သာ ပါပါသည္။

Section 1: Iron and Steel Products
Volume 01.01 Steel—Piping, Tubing, Fittings
Section 2: Nonferrous Metal Products
Section 3: Metals Test Methods and Analytical Procedures
Volume 03.03 Non destructive Testing
Section 4: Construction
Section 5: Petroleum Products, Lubricants, and Fossil Fuels
Section 6: Paints, Related Coatings, and Aromatic
Section 7: Textiles
Section 8: Plastics
Volume 08.04 Plastic Pipe and Building Products
Section 9: Rubber
Section 10: Electrical Insulation and Electronics
Section 11: Water and Environmental Technology
Section 12: Nuclear, Solar, and Geothermal Energy
Section 13: Medical Devices and Services
Section 14: General Methods and Instrumentation
Section 15: General Products, Chemical Specialties, and End Use Products
Section 00: Index

၁၃၊ ၄၊ ၁။ ASTM International – Standards for Steel Pipes, Tubes and Fittings


ASTM Standards မ်ားသည္ အပူခ်ိန္ျမင့္၊ သာမန္ ႏွင့္ အထူးသံုး (ဥပမာ မီး ကာကြယ္ေရးစနစ္) မ်ားအတြက္ အမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးေသာ စတီးပိုက္ႏွင့္ ပိုက္ဆက္ပစၥည္းမ်ားအားလံုးကို ကာမိသည္။
အေသးစိတ္ ေလ့လာႏုိင္ေစရန္အတြက္ ASTM Standards Section 1: Iron and Steel Products, Volume 01.01, Steel—Piping, Tubing, Fittings တြင္ပါ၀င္ေသာ စာရင္း အျပည့္အစံုကို ေအာက္တြင္ ေဖာ္ျပထားပါသည္။ (January 2002 updated.)

Steel Pipes

A53 - A53/A53M-99b - Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-
Coated, Welded and Seamless
A74 - A74-98 - Specification for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings
A105/A105M-01 - Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping
Applications
A106 - A106-99e1 - Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-
Temperature Service
A126 - A126-95e1 - Specification for Grey Iron Castings for Valves, Flanges, and
Pipe Fittings
A134 - A134-96 - Specification for Pipe, Steel, Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded (Sizes
NPS 16 and Over)
A135 - A135-97c - Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe
A139 - A139-96e1 - Specification for Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded Steel Pipe (NPS 4
and Over)
A182 - A182/A182M-99 - Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges,
Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service
A252 - A252-98 - Specification for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Piles
A312 - A312/A312M-00 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic
Stainless Steel Pipes
A333 - A333/A333M-99 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low-
Temperature Service
A335 - A335/A335M-99 - Specification for Seamless Ferritic Alloy-Steel Pipe for
High-Temperature Service
A338 - A338-84 (1998) - Specification for Malleable Iron Flanges, Pipe Fittings, and
Valve Parts for Railroad, Marine, and Other Heavy Duty Service at
Temperatures Up to 650°F (345°C)
A358 - A358/A358M-98 - Specification for Electric-Fusion-Welded Austenitic
Chromium-Nickel Alloy Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A369 - A369/A369M-92 - Specification for Carbon and Ferritic Alloy Steel Forged
and Bored Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A376 - A376/A376M-98 - Specification for Seamless Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-
Temperature Central-Station Service
A377 - A377-99 - Index of Specifications for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe
A409 - A409/A409M-95ae1 - Specification for Welded Large Diameter Austenitic
Steel Pipe for Corrosive or High-Temperature Service
A426 - A426-92 (1997) - Specification for Centrifugally Cast Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe
for High-Temperature Service
A451 - A451-93 (1997) - Specification for Centrifugally Cast Austenitic Steel Pipe
for High-Temperature Service
A523 - A523-96 - Specification for Plain End Seamless and Electric-Resistance-
Welded Steel Pipe for High-Pressure Pipe-Type Cable Circuits
A524 - A524-96 - Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and
Lower Temperatures
A530 - A530/A530M-99 - Specification for General Requirements for Specialized
Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe
A648 - A648-95e1 - Specification for Steel Wire, Hard Drawn for Pre-stressing
Concrete Pipe
A674 - A674-95 - Practice for Polyethylene Encasement for Ductile Iron Pipe for
Water or Other Liquids
A691 - A691-98 - Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-
Welded for High-Pressure Service at High Temperatures
A694 - A694/A694M-00 - Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pipe
Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High-Pressure Transmission Service
A716 - A716-99 - Specification for Ductile Iron Culvert Pipe
A733 - A733-99 - Specification for Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel and
Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe Nipples
A742 - A742/A742M-98 - Specification for Steel Sheet, Metallic Coated and Polymer
Pre-coated for Corrugated Steel Pipe
A746 - A746-99 - Specification for Ductile Iron Gravity Sewer Pipe
A760 - A760/A760M-99 - Specification for Corrugated Steel Pipe, Metallic-Coated
for Sewers and Drains
A761 - A761/A761M-98 - Specification for Corrugated Steel Structural Plate, Zinc-
Coated, for Field-Bolted Pipe, Pipe-Arches, and Arches
A762 - A762/A762M-98 - Specification for Corrugated Steel Pipe, Polymer Pre-
coated for Sewers and Drains
A790 - A790/A790M-99 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic
Stainless Steel Pipe
A796 - A796/A796M-99 - Practice for Structural Design of Corrugated Steel Pipe,
Pipe-Arches, and Arches for Storm and Sanitary Sewers and Other Buried
Applications
A798 - A798/A798M-97a - Practice for Installing Factory-Made Corrugated Steel
Pipe for Sewers and Other Applications
A807 - A807/A807M-97 - Practice for Installing Corrugated Steel Structural Plate
Pipe for Sewers and Other Applications
A810 - A810-94 - Specification for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Pipe Winding
Mesh
A813 - A813/A813M-95e2 - Specification for Single- or Double-Welded Austenitic
Stainless Steel Pipe
A814 - A814/A814M-96 (1998) - Specification for Cold-Worked Welded Austenitic
Stainless Steel Pipe
A849 - A849-99 - Specification for Post-Applied Coatings, Pavings, and Linings for
Corrugated Steel Sewer and Drainage Pipe
A861 - A861-94e1 - Specification for High-Silicon Iron Pipe and Fittings
A862 - A862/A862M-98 - Practice for Application of Asphalt Coatings to Corrugated
Steel Sewer and Drainage Pipe
A865 - A865-97 - Specification for Threaded Couplings, Steel, Black or Zinc-Coated
(Galvanized) Welded or Seamless, for Use in Steel Pipe Joints
A872 - A872-91 (1997) - Specification for Centrifugally Cast Ferritic/Austenitic
Stainless Steel Pipe for Corrosive Environments
A885 - A885/A885M-96 - Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc and Aramid Fiber
Composite Coated for Corrugated Steel Sewer, Culvert, and Underdrain
Pipe
A888 - A888-98e1 - Specification for Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for
Sanitary and Storm Drain, Waste, and Vent Piping Applications
A926 - A926-97 - Test Method for Comparing the Abrasion Resistance of Coating
Materials for Corrugated Metal Pipe
A928 - A928/A928M-98 - Specification for Ferritic/Austenitic (Duplex) Stainless
Steel Pipe Electric Fusion Welded with Addition of Filler Metal
A929 - A929/A929M-97 - Specification for Steel Sheet, Metallic-Coated by the Hot-
Dip Process for Corrugated Steel Pipe
A930 - A930-99 - Practice for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of Corrugated Metal Pipe
Used for Culverts, Storm Sewers, and Other Buried Conduits
A943 - A943/A943M-95e1 - Specification for Spray-Formed Seamless Austenitic
Stainless Steel Pipes
A949 - A949/A949M-95e1 - Specification for Spray-Formed Seamless
Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
A954 - A954-96 - Specification for Austenitic Chromium-Nickel-Silicon Alloy Steel
Seamless and Welded Pipe
A972 - A972/A972M-99 - Specification for Fusion Bonded Epoxy-Coated Pipe Piles
A978 - A978/A978M-97 - Specification for Composite Ribbed Steel Pipe, Precoated
and Polyethylene Lined for Gravity Flow Sanitary Sewers, Storm Sewers,
and Other Special Applications
A984 - A984/A984M-00 - Specification for Steel Line Pipe, Black, Plain-End, Electric-
Resistance-Welded
A998 - A998/A998M-98 - Practice for Structural Design of Reinforcements for
Fittings in Factory-Made Corrugated Steel Pipe for Sewers and Other
Applications
A999 - A999/A999M-98 - Specification for General Requirements for Alloy and
Stainless Steel Pipe
A1005 - A1005/A1005M-00 - Specification for Steel Line Pipe, Black, Plain End,
Longitudinal and Helical Seam, Double Submerged-Arc Welded
A1006 - A1006/A1006M-00 - Specification for Steel Line Pipe, Black, Plain End,
Laser Beam WeldedSteel Tubes Superheater, boiler and Miscellaneous Tubes:
A178 - A178/A178M-95 - Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel
and Carbon-Manganese Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes
A179 - A179/A179M-90a (1996) e1 - Specification for Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-
Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
A192 - A192/A192M-91 (1996) e1 - Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler
Tubes for High-Pressure Service
A209 - A209/A209M-98 - Specification for Seamless Carbon-Molybdenum Alloy-
Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes
A210 - A210/A210M-96 - Specification for Seamless Medium-Carbon Steel Boiler
and Superheater Tubes
A213 - A213/A213M-99a - Specification for Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-
Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes
A249 - A249/A249M-98e1 - Specification for Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler,
Superheater, Heat-Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes
A250 - A250/A250M-95 - Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Ferritic Alloy-
Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes
A254 - A254-97 - Specification for Copper-Brazed Steel Tubing
A268 - A268/A268M-96 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Ferritic and
Martensitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service
A269 - A269-98 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel
Tubing for General Service
A270 - A270-98ae1 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless
Steel Sanitary Tubing
A334 - A334/A334M-99 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Carbon and Alloy-
Steel Tubes for Low-Temperature Service
A423 - A423/A423M-95 - Specification for Seamless and Electric-Welded Low-Alloy
Steel Tubes
A450 - A450/A450M-96a - Specification for General Requirements for Carbon,
Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Tubes
A608 - A608-91a (1998) - Specification for Centrifugally Cast Iron-Chromium-Nickel
High-Alloy Tubing for Pressure Application at High Temperatures
A618 - A618-99 - Specification for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless High-Strength
Low-Alloy Structural Tubing
A632 - A632-98 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel
Tubing (Small-Diameter) for General Service
A688 - A688/A688M-98 - Specification for Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel
Feedwater Heater Tubes
A771 - A771/A771M-95 - Specification for Seamless Austenitic and Martensitic
Stainless Steel Tubing for Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor Core Components
A778 - A778-98 - Specification for Welded, Unanneled Austenitic Stainless Steel
Tubular Products
A789 - A789/A789M-00 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic
Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service
A803 - A803/A803M-98 - Specification for Welded Ferritic Stainless Steel Feedwater
Heater Tubes
A822 - A822-90 (1995) e1 - Specification for Seamless Cold-Drawn Carbon Steel
Tubing for Hydraulic System Service
A826 - A826/A826M-95 - Specification for Seamless Austenitic and Martensitic
Stainless Steel Duct Tubes for Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor Core
Components
A847 - A847-99a - Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless High
Strength, Low Alloy Structural Tubing with Improved Atmospheric
Corrosion Resistance
A908 - A908-91 (1998) - Specification for Stainless Steel Needle Tubing
A953 - A953-96 - Specification for Austenitic Chromium-Nickel-Silicon Alloy Steel
Seamless and Welded Tubing

Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes

A179 - A179/A179M-90a (1996) e1 - Specification for Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-
Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
A213 - A213/A213M-99a - Specification for Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-
Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes
A214 - A214/A214M-96 - Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel
Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
A249 - A249/A249M-98e1 - Specification for Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler,
Superheater, Heat-Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes
A498 - A498-98 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Carbon, Ferritic, and
Austenitic Alloy Steel Heat-Exchanger Tubes with Integral Fins
A851 - A851-96 - Specification for High-Frequency Induction Welded, Unannealed,
Austenitic Steel Condenser Tubes
Structural Tubing
A 500 - A500-99 - Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon
Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes
A501 - A501-99 - Specification for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel

Structural Tubing
A847 - A847-99a - Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless High
Strength, Low Alloy Structural Tubing with Improved Atmospheric
Corrosion Resistance
A618 - A618-99 - Specification for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless High-Strength
Low-Alloy Structural Tubing

Mechanical Tubing
A511 - A511-96 - Specification for Seamless Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing
A512 - A512-96 - Specification for Cold-Drawn Butt weld Carbon Steel Mechanical Tubing
A513 - A513-98 - Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
A519 - A519-96 - Specification for Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
A554 - A554-98e1 - Specification for Welded Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing

Welded Fittings

A234 - A234/A234M-99 - Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel
and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service
A403 - A403/A403M-99a - Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel
Piping Fittings
A420 - A420/A420M-99 - Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel
and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service
A758 - A758/A758M-98 - Specification for Wrought-Carbon Steel Butt-Welding
Piping Fittings with Improved Notch Toughness
A774 - A774/A774M-98 - Specification for As-Welded Wrought Austenitic Stainless
Steel Fittings for General Corrosive Service at Low and Moderate
Temperatures

၁၃၊ ၅။ DIN - Pipe, Tube and Fittings Standards and Specifications

ASTM ကဲ့သို႔ပင္ DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung) Standard မ်ားသည္ လည္း အလြန္မ်ားျပားလွပါသည္။ စာမ်က္ႏွာကိုငဲ့ကြက္ေသာအားျဖင့္ ဤေနရာတြင္ အားလံုး မေဖာ္ျပေတာ့ပါ။ အခ်ိဳ႔ကိုသာ သိသာရံု ေဖာ္ျပလိုက္ပါသည္။

DIN 76-2:1984 : Thread run-outs and thread undercuts for pipe threads
conforming to ISO 228 part 1
DIN EN 259-1:2001 : Wall coverings in roll form - Heavy duty wallcoverings - Part 1:
Specifications
DIN EN 259-2:2001: Wall coverings in roll form - Heavy duty wallcoverings - Part 2:
Determination of impact resistance;
DIN 431:2000 : Pipe nuts with thread according to DIN ISO 228-1
DIN 906:1992 : Hexagon socket pipe plugs
DIN 909:1992 : Hexagon head pipe plugs
DIN 1230-P1:1992 : Vitrified clay for sewerage; special fittings and adapters with
flexible mechanical joint and compatible accessories; dimensions
DIN 1389:2001 : WC connectors - Requirements and testing
DIN 1478:1975 : Turnbuckles Made from Steel Tube or Round Steel Bar
DIN 1986-4:2003 : Drainage systems on private ground - Part 4: Fields of
application of sewage pipes and fittings of different materials
DIN 1988-3 Beiblatt 1:1988 : Codes of practice for drinking water installations
(TRWI); examples for calculation; DVGW code of practice
DIN 2406:1968 : Pipelines symbols - pipe classes
DIN 2559-2:1984 : Edge preparation for welding; matching of inside diameter for
circumferential welds on seamless pipes
DIN 2559-3:1990 : Preparation of welds; matching of inside diameters for
circumferential welds on welded pipes
DIN 2559-4:1994 : Preparation of welds; part 4: matching of inside diameters for
circumferential welds on seamless pipes of stainless steels
DIN 2609:1991 : Steel butt-welding pipe fittings; technical delivery conditions
DIN 2614:1990 Cement mortar linings for ductile iron and steel pipes and fittings;
application, requirements and testing
DIN 2615-1:1992 : Steel butt-welding pipes fittings; tees with reduced pressure
factor
DIN 2615-2:1992 : Steel butt-welding pipe fittings; tees for use at full service
pressure
DIN 2616-1:1991 : Steel butt-welding pipe fittings; eccentric reducers with reduced
pressure factor
DIN 2616-2:1991 : Steel butt-welding pipe fittings; reducers for use at full service
pressure
DIN 2617:1991 : Steel butt-welding pipe fittings; caps

၁၃၊ ၆။ ISO - Pipe, Tube and Fittings Standards and Specifications

အထက္ပါ ASTM ႏွင့္ DIN ကဲ့သို႔ ထင္ရွားေသာ အျခားတစ္ဖဲြ႔မွာ အျပည္ျပည္ဆိုင္ရာ စံႏံႈးအဖဲြ႔ ISO (International Organization for Standardization) ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ISO စံႏံႈး မ်ားမွာလည္း အလြန္မ်ားျပားလွေပရာ ဤေနရာတြင္ အားလံုးမေဖာ္ျပေတာ့ပဲ အခ်ိဳ႔ကိုသာ ေဖာ္ျပ လိုက္ပါသည္။

ISO 7-1:1994-05 : Pipe threads where pressure-tight joints are made on the
threads - Part 1: Dimensions, tolerances and designation
ISO 7-2:2000 : Pipe threads where pressure-tight joints are made on the threads –
Part 2: Verification by means of limit gauges
ISO 49:1994 : Malleable cast iron fittings threaded to ISO 7-1
ISO 228-1:2000 : Pipe threads where pressure-tight joints are not made on the
threads - Part 1: Dimensions, tolerances and designation
ISO 228-2:1987 : Pipe threads where pressure-tight joints are not made on the
threads; Part 2 : Verification by means of limit gauges
ISO 264:1976 : Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fittings with plain sockets for
pipes under pressure; Laying lengths; Metric series
ISO 265-1:1988 : Pipes and fittings of plastics materials; fittings for domestic and
industrial waste pipes; basic dimensions: metric series; part 1:
unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U)
ISO 392:1986 : Asbestos-cement pipe fittings for building and sanitary purposes
ISO 580:1990 : Injection-molded unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) fittings;
oven test; test method and basic specifications
ISO 727-1:2002 : Fittings made from unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U),
chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene
(ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Part 1: Metric series
ISO 727-2:2002 : Fittings made from unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U),
chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene
(ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Part 2: Inch-based
series
ISO 881:1980 : Asbestos-cement pipes, joints, fittings/sewage/drain
ISO 1179:1981 : Pipe connections, threaded to ISO 228/1, for plain end steel and
other metal tubes in industrial applications
ISO 1635-2:1987 : Seamless wrought copper and copper alloy tube
ISO 1651:1974 : Tube drawing mandrels
ISO 1684:1975 : Wire, bar and tube drawing dies; Specifications
ISO 2016:1981 : Capillary solder fittings for copper tubes; Assembly dimensions
and tests
ISO 2035:1974 : Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) moulded fittings for elastic
sealing ring type joints for use under pressure; Pressure-resistance test
ISO 2044:1974 : Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) injection-moulded solvent-
welded socket fittings for use with pressure pipe; Hydraulic internal
pressure test
ISO 2048:1990 : Double-socket fittings for unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U)
pressure pipes with elastic sealing ring type joints; minimum depths of
engagement
ISO 2284:1987 : Hand taps for parallel and taper pipe threads; General dimensions
and marking
ISO 2507-1:1995 : Thermoplastics pipes and fittings - Vicat softening temperature
- Part 1: General test method
ISO 2507-2:1995 : Thermoplastics pipes and fittings - Vicat softening temperature
- Part 2: Test conditions for unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) or
chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) pipes and fittings and for high
impact resistance poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-HI) pipes
ISO 2507-3:1995 : Thermoplastics pipes and fittings - Vicat softening temperature
- Part 3: Test conditions for acrylonitrile /butadiene/styrene (ABS) and
acrylonitrile /styrene / acrylic ester (ASA) pipes and fittings
ISO 2531:1998 : Ductile iron pipes, fittings, accessories and their joints for water
or gas applications
ISO 2804:1996 : Wire, bar or tube drawing dies - As-sintered pellets of hard metal
(carbide) - Dimensions
ISO 2851:1993 : Stainless steel bends and tees for the food industry
ISO 2852:1993 : Stainless steel clamp pipe couplings for the food industry
ISO 3183-1:1996 : Petroleum and natural gas industries - Steel pipe for pipelines –
Technical delivery conditions - Part 1: Pipes of requirement class A
ISO 3183-2:1996 : Petroleum and natural gas industries - Steel pipe for pipelines –
Technical delivery conditions - Part 2: Pipes of requirements class B
ISO 3253:1998 : Gas welding equipment - Hose connections for equipment for
welding, cutting and allied processes

၁၃၊ ၇။ JIS - Pipe, Tube and Fittings Standards

အထက္ပါ အဖဲြ႔မ်ားကဲ့သို႔ ထင္ရွားေသာ အျခားတစ္ဖဲြ႔မွာ JIS - Japanese Industrial Standards ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ၎၏စံႏံႈးမ်ားမွာလည္း အလြန္မ်ားျပားလွသျဖင့္ အားလံုးမေဖာ္ျပ ေတာ့ပဲ အခ်ိဳ႔ကိုသာ ေဖာ္ျပလိုက္ပါသည္။

JIS G 3429:1988 : Seamless steel tubes for high pressure gas cylinder
JIS G 3439 : Seamless steel oil well casing, tubing and drill pipe
JIS G 3441:2004 : Alloy steel tubes for machine purposes
JIS G 3442:2004 : Galvanized steel pipes for ordinary piping
JIS G 3443:2004 : Coated steel pipes for water service
JIS G 3444:2004 : Carbon steel tubes for general structural purposes
JIS G 3445:1988 : Carbon steel tubes for machine structural purposes
JIS G 3446:1994 : Stainless steel pipes for machine and structural purposes
JIS G 3447:2004 : Stainless steel sanitary pipes
JIS G 3448:2004 : Light gauge stainless steel tubes for ordinary piping
JIS G 3451:1987 : Fittings of coated steel pipes for water service
JIS G 3452:2004 : Carbon steel pipes for ordinary piping
JIS G 3454:1988 : Carbon steel pipes for pressure service
JIS G 3455:1988 : Carbon steel pipes for high pressure service
JIS G 3456:2004 : Carbon steel pipes for high temperature service
JIS G 3457:1988 : Arc welded carbon steel pipes
JIS G 3458:1988 : Alloy steel pipes
JIS G 3459:2004 : Stainless steel pipes
JIS G 3460:1988 : Steel pipes for low temperature service
JIS G 3465:1988 : Seamless steel tubes for drilling
JIS G 3466:1988 : Carbon steel square pipes for general structural purposes
JIS G 3468, : Large diameter welded stainless steel pipes
JIS G 3469:2002 : Polyethylene coated steel pipes
JIS G 3471:1977 : Corrugated steel pipes and sections
JIS G 3474:1995 : High tensile strength steel tubes for tower structural purposes
JIS G 3491:2004 : Asphalt protective coatings for steel water pipe
JIS G 3492:1993 : Coal-tar enamel protective coatings for steel water pipe
JIS G 4903:1991 : Seamless nickel-chromium-iron alloy pipes
JIS G 5201:1991 : Centrifugally cast steel pipes for welded structure
JIS G 5202:1991 : Centrifugally cast steel pipes for high temperature and high
pressure service
JIS G 5525:2000 : Cast-iron drainage pipes and fittings
JIS G 5526:1998 : Ductile iron pipes
JIS G 5527:1998 : Ductile iron fittings
JIS G 5528:1984 : Epoxy-powder coating for interior of ductile iron pipes and
fittings
JIS H 0502:1986 : Method of eddy current testing for copper and copper alloy
pipes and tubes
JIS H 0515:1992 : Eddy current inspection of titanium pipes and tubes
JIS H 0516:1992 : Ultrasonic inspection of titanium pipes and tubes
JIS H 3300:1997 : Copper and copper alloy seamless pipes and tubes
JIS H 3320:1992 : Copper and copper alloy welded pipes and tubes
JIS H 3401:2001 : Pipe fittings of copper and copper alloys
JIS H 4080:1999 : Aluminum and aluminium alloys extruded tubes and cold-drawn
tubes
JIS H 4090:1990 : Aluminum and aluminium alloy welded pipes and tubes
JIS H 4202:1998 : Magnesium alloy seamless pipes and tubes

၁၃၊ ၈။ ASTM Grades

Carbon steel pipe မ်ား၏ dimension မ်ားကို ASME B31.10M တြင္လည္းေကာင္း၊ stainless steel pipe မ်ား၏ dimension မ်ားကို ASME B31.19M တြင္လည္းေကာင္း ေဖာ္ျပ ထားသည္။ ASTM standard မ်ားတြင္ ပိုက္ကိုေသာ္လည္းေကာင္း၊ ပိုက္ဆက္ပစၥည္းမ်ားကို ေသာ္လည္းေကာင္း ထုတ္လုပ္ရာတြင္ ပါ၀င္ရမည့္ ဓါတုေပါင္းစည္းမႈ (Chemical composition) ကို ရာႏံႈးမ်ားႏွင့္ အတိအက်ေဖာ္ျပထားသည္။ ပါ၀င္ေသာ ဓါတုပစၥည္း အခ်ိဳးအစားေပၚမူတည္ၿပီး ပိုက္ႏွင့္ ပိုက္ဆက္ပစၥည္းမ်ားကို grade ခဲြသည္။

ဥပမာ carbon steel pipe ကို Grade A ႏွင့္ B ဟု ခဲြႏုိင္သည္။ Stainless steel pipe မ်ားကို Grade TP304, TP321 စသျဖင့္ ခဲြျခားႏိုင္သည္။ တစ္ခါတစ္ရံ ASTM A105N ဟု လာ တတ္သည္။ ဤတြင္ေဖာ္ျပထားေသာ N ဟူသည္မွာ Normalize လုပ္ရမည္ဟု ေဖာ္ျပထားျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။ Normalize ဆိုသည္မွာ ferrous metal မ်ားမွ internal stress ကို heat treat – ment လုပ္ျခင္းျဖင့္ ေဖ်ာက္ပစ္ျခင္းကို ေခၚသည္။

ေအာက္ပါဇယားတြင္ ASTM A106 ၏ Grade မ်ား၊ Stainless steel မ်ား၏ grade မ်ား၊ High Temp. ႏွင့္ Low Temp. Alloy Steel မ်ားကို ေဖာ္ျပထားသည္။ ေလ့လာၾကည့္ပါ။

2 comments:

andrewaung said...

ဆရာေအးၿငိမ္းခင္ဗ်ာ,
ဆရာစာအုပ္(ပိုက္ၿပင္ပိုက္ဆက္လက္စြဲ)ကို အရမ္းေကာင္းၿပီး က်ြန္ေတာ္တို့လို လူသစ္ေလးေတြအတြက္ အက်ိဳးရွိလို႕ စကာႌပူကိုလာကတည္းက ရန္ကုန္ကေန ၀ယ္လာခဲ့တာ...ဆရာ့ရဲ့ သင္တန္းေလးေတြ စကႌာပူမွာ ဖြင့္ရင္ ဘယ္လိုတတ္လို့ ရမလဲ ခင္ဗ်ာ။

ေအးၿငိမ္း said...

ကိုအင္ဒရူးေအာင္ခင္ဗ်ား -
ပင္နင္စူလာ ပလာဇာ၊ #07-26 မွာ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ ပညာဒါနသင္တန္းေတြ ဖြင့္လွစ္သင္ၾကားေပးေနပါတယ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ့္ Piping Engineering အခ်ိန္က စေနေန႔ည ၈ နာရီကေန ၉ နာရီခဲြ ထိပါ။ တက္ခ်င္တယ္ဆို အဲဒီမွာ သြားေရာက္ စံုစမ္းၿပီး စာရင္းေပးထားႏိုင္ပါတယ္။ သင္တာကေတာ့ အခမဲ့ပါ။
ေက်းဇူးတင္ပါတယ္။
ေအးၿငိမ္း